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It is important to note however, whereas the H aquetia has been the spoken language, Ladino was the literary language of the community. The majority of the Jews who were expelled from Spainin settled around the Mediterraneanand in the Balkans.
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However, most of the megorashim expelled who fled to the nearby shores of North Africa, established themselves for the most part in Morocco and Algiers. As time went by, a large number of them assimilated into the local Jewish communities and gradually adopted their languages and customs.
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Indeed, the megorashim who wandered to the southern parts of Morocco slowly substituted most of their Spanish with the local Judeo-Moroccan Arabic dialect. Thus, not all the descendants of the expelled Sephardim in Hebrew: Jews from Spain who arrived in Morocco held on to their Judeo-Spanish until present days. Nonetheless, there are still many words in Spanish and Portuguese in their local Judeo-Moroccan Arabic dialect. This was not the case, however, with the Sephardim who settled in northern Morocco and in the Ottoman Empire. These Sephardim preserved their medieval Spanish, albeit adding words borrowed from their new surrounding throughout the centuries.
Whereas the Judeo-Spanish vernaculars of eastern Mediterranean communities incorporated words in Greek, Turkish, Hebrew, Slavic and French, the imported additions to the H aquetia were from different sources: primarily local Judeo-Moroccan Arabic, Hebrew, Portuguese, French, as well as some English and Italian — languages of the nations that exerted influence on the Moroccan Jewry by way of political control or business ties during various periods.
According to scholars, even before the expulsion from Spainthe Jews spoke among themselves a somewhat culturally modified Spanish that was scattered with Hebrew words and Jewish expressions. Interestingly, it seems that this peculiarity was not unfamiliar to the general public. The pronunciation and the conjugation of the verbs in H aquetia adhere to the archaic Castilian rules in most cases.
Likewise, the verbs are conjugated differently than the contemporary pattern. Additionally, the words imported to the H aquetia from other languages were Hispanicize by applying Spanish morphological rules. This element in the vernacular consists of the root word in various languages with the typical Spanish prefix and suffix.
The syntax, on the other hand, has been evolving, and it has been following more and more the contemporary Spanish rules with some exceptions: purposefully playful composed sentences with an unconventional order of words, aphorisms, blessings etc. Interestingly enough, there is a slight variation in the H aquetia that was spoken in the various Moroccan towns. In the Atlantic coastal cities, on the other hand, Portuguese and even English had a stronger presence.
Whereas H aquetia was the daily vernacular, the literary language remained the Ladino , whose archaic Castilian vocabulary has been preserved to date. The rabbis in Spain used a unique method for translating Hebrew biblical and liturgical texts example: Haggadah for Pesah. It was a word-for-word claque translation into medieval Spanish while following the Hebrew syntax rules; this linguistic fusion was called Ladino.
Contrary to the hermetic character of the Ladino , all the Judeo-Spanish vernaculars are scattered with a considerable amount of vocabulary imported from the surrounding communities.
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The Ladino was the literary language of all the Sephardic communities in the world, and its archaic Castilian vocabulary is the basis of the Judeo-Spanish from Morocco — H aquetia , as well as the basis of the various Judeo-Spanish vernaculars from the Balkans, Turkey and Greece. Interestingly, similar ballads are found in the musical compendium of the eastern and western Mediterranean communities. But, whereas the lyrical versions of both communities are nearly the same, the melodies differ from each other.
Ethnomusicologists, the late Henrietta Yurchenco for example, argue that while the ballads of the Sephardim in the eastern Mediterranean incorporated Balkan musical influences, the melodies of the ballads which have been preserved to date by the Jews of northernMorocco, are almost faithful to the original medieval melodies. Sometimes, I just wanted to quit.
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